A. Post-exile, returning from Babylon in 2 waves (see Ezra 1-2)
B. First prophesied in Isa. 44:28
C. Work on temple has ceased for 16 years
D. Dated messages: 1:1-15- Aug 29 520, Sept 21 520; 2:1-9 Oct 17; 2:10-19 Dec 18; 2:20-23 Dec 18 520
E. key phrase- consider your ways 1:5,7;2:15,18
1st message 1:1-5 Build the temple!
2nd message 1:13-15 I am with you
3rd message 2:1-9 Be strong
4th message 2:10-19 People's spiritual condition
5th message 2:20-23 Future eschatological order with Zerubbabel as signet ring. Fulfilled in Matthew 1:13,17 in Zerubbabel's descendant Jesus Christ.
People grow discouraged because God's promises haven't materialized yet.
Warns people to not think like the world but think about their lives as God's people
Covenant theme: 1:2-5; 2:5-9; 2:10; 2:14; 3:1
6 assertions by God and questions from the people, structured around the word "how".
1. God affirms His love 1:2-5
2. Defiled worship 1:7-2:9
3. Unfaithful Behavior 2:10-16
4. God affirms His justice 2:17-3:5
5. Neglect of offerings denounced 3:6-12
6. Affirms His justice again 3:13-4:3
Apologies for the "service has ended" notification. Hopefully it doesn't bother you too much. Didn't realize it was still up until after we shot the video.
Breakdown: 1 and 2- Judgment; Chapter 3- hope, renewal and restoration
Chapter 2 God will judge enemies of Judah to the N, S, E and W
King Josiah - 2 kings 22-23
King Jehoiakim- 2 Kings 23-24
Habakkuk predicts the coming of the Babylonian invasion, 1:6
Habakkuk is representative of the godly in Judah
Hab. 2:4 used in the NT: Romans 1:17, Gal. 3:11, Heb 10:37-38
Outline of book:
1. 1st complaint 1:2-4
a. Why does evil seem to go unpunished?
2. God's answer 1:5-11
a. I am raising up the Babylonians
3. 2nd complaint 1:12-2:1
a. How could a holy God used unholy people to judge the righteous?
4. God's response, chapter 2
a. the just shall live by faith
b. Luther on Romans 1:17: "Then finally God had mercy on me, and I began to understand that the righteousness of God is a gift of God by which a righteous man lives, namely by faith, and that sentence: the righteousness of God is revealed in the Gospel, is passive, indicating that the merciful God justifies us by faith, as it is written: 'The righteous shall live by faith.' No I felt as though I have been reborn altogether and had entered paradise. In the same moment the face of the whole Scripture became apparent to me. My mind ran through the Scriptures, as far as I was able to recollect them, seeking analogies in other phrases such as the work of God, by which He makes us strong, the wisdom of God, by which He makes us wise, the strength of God, the salvation of God, the glory of God. Just as intensely as I had now hated the expression 'the righteousness of God', I now lovingly praised this most pleasant word. this passage from Paul became to me the very gate to Paradise."
c. 5 woes- v6,9,12,15,19
5. Habakkuk's prayer- chapter 3
a. v17-19 salvation and restoration guaranteed
Joel means “Yahweh is God”
Occasion for writing: Locust plague
Major themes: Day of the Lord and repentance
Luther’s 1st of 95 theses: When our Lord and master Jesus Christ said “Repent”, he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
If you’d like to read his interpretation of his 95 these please click here:
NT use of Joel:
1. Mark 13:24
2. Acts 2:16-21
3. Romans 10:13 references Joel 2:32
4. Rev. 6:12,13
5. Rev. 9:2,3
Outline of Joel breaks into 2 parts
1. 1:2-2:17: Judah experiences foretaste of the Day of the Lord
2. 2:8-3:21: Judah is assured of salvation in the Day of the Lord
First Division 1:2-2:17 is broken down into 5 units
1. 1:2-4 Call to attention
2. V5-14 Call to lament and repent
3. 15-20 Lamentation
4. 2:1-11 Call to alarm
5. 12-17 Call to repentance
Second Division into 2 segments
2:18-27 promises to spare and restore Joel’s generation
2:28-3:21 looks beyond the immediate to the future and final vindication
Joel 3 develops the Day of the Lord