In-person Sunday School begins Feb. 14 at 9:30am
Purpose: To rebuke the people of Judah and to encourage and motivate them to complete the rebuilding of the temple. Contemporary of Haggai.
Christ in Zechariah:
V2 gather all nations
V3 Lord fights
V4 Mt Olives
V5b Lord will come with holy ones
V7 Unique day known only to the Lord
V8 Living water will flow out
V9 King over whole earth, one Lord
V20 Holy to lord
A. Post-exile, returning from Babylon in 2 waves (see Ezra 1-2)
B. First prophesied in Isa. 44:28
C. Work on temple has ceased for 16 years
D. Dated messages: 1:1-15- Aug 29 520, Sept 21 520; 2:1-9 Oct 17; 2:10-19 Dec 18; 2:20-23 Dec 18 520
E. key phrase- consider your ways 1:5,7;2:15,18
1st message 1:1-5 Build the temple!
2nd message 1:13-15 I am with you
3rd message 2:1-9 Be strong
4th message 2:10-19 People's spiritual condition
5th message 2:20-23 Future eschatological order with Zerubbabel as signet ring. Fulfilled in Matthew 1:13,17 in Zerubbabel's descendant Jesus Christ.
People grow discouraged because God's promises haven't materialized yet.
Warns people to not think like the world but think about their lives as God's people
Covenant theme: 1:2-5; 2:5-9; 2:10; 2:14; 3:1
6 assertions by God and questions from the people, structured around the word "how".
1. God affirms His love 1:2-5
2. Defiled worship 1:7-2:9
3. Unfaithful Behavior 2:10-16
4. God affirms His justice 2:17-3:5
5. Neglect of offerings denounced 3:6-12
6. Affirms His justice again 3:13-4:3
Apologies for the "service has ended" notification. Hopefully it doesn't bother you too much. Didn't realize it was still up until after we shot the video.
Breakdown: 1 and 2- Judgment; Chapter 3- hope, renewal and restoration
Chapter 2 God will judge enemies of Judah to the N, S, E and W
King Josiah - 2 kings 22-23
King Jehoiakim- 2 Kings 23-24
Habakkuk predicts the coming of the Babylonian invasion, 1:6
Habakkuk is representative of the godly in Judah
Hab. 2:4 used in the NT: Romans 1:17, Gal. 3:11, Heb 10:37-38
Outline of book:
1. 1st complaint 1:2-4
a. Why does evil seem to go unpunished?
2. God's answer 1:5-11
a. I am raising up the Babylonians
3. 2nd complaint 1:12-2:1
a. How could a holy God used unholy people to judge the righteous?
4. God's response, chapter 2
a. the just shall live by faith
b. Luther on Romans 1:17: "Then finally God had mercy on me, and I began to understand that the righteousness of God is a gift of God by which a righteous man lives, namely by faith, and that sentence: the righteousness of God is revealed in the Gospel, is passive, indicating that the merciful God justifies us by faith, as it is written: 'The righteous shall live by faith.' No I felt as though I have been reborn altogether and had entered paradise. In the same moment the face of the whole Scripture became apparent to me. My mind ran through the Scriptures, as far as I was able to recollect them, seeking analogies in other phrases such as the work of God, by which He makes us strong, the wisdom of God, by which He makes us wise, the strength of God, the salvation of God, the glory of God. Just as intensely as I had now hated the expression 'the righteousness of God', I now lovingly praised this most pleasant word. this passage from Paul became to me the very gate to Paradise."
c. 5 woes- v6,9,12,15,19
5. Habakkuk's prayer- chapter 3
a. v17-19 salvation and restoration guaranteed
Joel means “Yahweh is God”
Occasion for writing: Locust plague
Major themes: Day of the Lord and repentance
Luther’s 1st of 95 theses: When our Lord and master Jesus Christ said “Repent”, he willed the entire life of believers to be one of repentance.
If you’d like to read his interpretation of his 95 these please click here:
NT use of Joel:
1. Mark 13:24
2. Acts 2:16-21
3. Romans 10:13 references Joel 2:32
4. Rev. 6:12,13
5. Rev. 9:2,3
Outline of Joel breaks into 2 parts
1. 1:2-2:17: Judah experiences foretaste of the Day of the Lord
2. 2:8-3:21: Judah is assured of salvation in the Day of the Lord
First Division 1:2-2:17 is broken down into 5 units
1. 1:2-4 Call to attention
2. V5-14 Call to lament and repent
3. 15-20 Lamentation
4. 2:1-11 Call to alarm
5. 12-17 Call to repentance
Second Division into 2 segments
2:18-27 promises to spare and restore Joel’s generation
2:28-3:21 looks beyond the immediate to the future and final vindication
Joel 3 develops the Day of the Lord
TWO- Greed and plunder in verses 5-6
THREE- Loss of wisdom and understanding in verses 7-8
FOUR- Violence and gloating over the suffering of others in verses 10-14
Main characters: Jonah but God remains the central character
Jonah stands in contrast to the rest of the characters in the story
Jonah is not only a reluctant prophet but Jonah serves as a microcosm of disobedient Israel
Primary purpose is to demonstrate God’s character, mainly his grace, mercy and compassion for humanity while demonstrating “Salvation belongs to the Lord 2:9.
Book also shows us the Word of God will not return void
V1-2 Divine commission- expect obedience- took off in other direction- God said Go Jonah said No
Pagan sailors willing to do everything to save Jonah yet Jonah unwilling to make an effort for pagan Ninevites. Claimed to fear God but actions denied it
Sailors on other hand demonstrated their genuine fear of the Lord by submissively responding to God’s will and power as revealed in casting of lots and the storm
Chapter 2 Jonah’s experience parallels that of the sailors
Faces crisis at sea
Prays to Yahweh
Offers sacrifice and makes vow
Jonah’s movement down: which is not good, symbolizing moving father and farther away from God
Chisholm writes: "One would hope that his bout with death might give him some sympathy for the Ninevites plight and a greater appreciation for the task God gave him. However, the disdain he showed for the pagans foreshadowed the attitude he would display in the story’s final scene."
2:10 God demonstrates compassion and mercy without Jonah’s repentance by rescuing an undeserving prophet from death
Obeys, declares, Ninevites respond positively v4
3:5-9 Ninevites like sailors respond positively to message
Lord spared repentant v10- Lord acts according to His nature
Jonah’s anger stark contrast to God’s mercy
Praise God s mercy and grace in wake of his rebellion but deems these same attributes unjust when benefit Nineveh
4:9-11 object lesson of plant God contrasts his mercy with Jonah’s anger and His abundant compassion and lack of Jonah’s
God’s question is left unanswered because Jonah and the reader must contemplate our own answer in light of God’s mercy, grace and compassion
Where Jonah refused to be sent, Jesus obeyed and submitted Himself to the Father’s will
Jonah acted selfishly. Jesus humbly emptied himself Phil 2:5-11
Jesus comes as something better – comes as mediator 1 Tim 2:5-6 one mediator between God and man, the man Christ Jesus
A mediator is one intervenes between the two parties, to make peace, to make a covenant or for friendship.
The man Christ Jesus- true humanity in every way, God taken up our humanity
Christ Jesus- Christ – Annointed One, Divine Messiah
This mediator gave his life as a ransom- Jonah sought the cities destruction, Jesus sought our salvation
Ransom-price paid to free a slave. Christ paid the ransom to free us from the slavery of sin
The book of Nahum is about the destruction of Nineveh almost 150 years after Jonah’s preaching
Michael Goheen writes: “No faithful missional community will survive that does not take seriously the task of training the next generation to walk tin the way of the Lord and to encounter other ways of life. Without such instruction, that next generation will be terribly vulnerable to idolatrous ways of the surrounding nations.” A Light to the Nations
Nineveh destroyed by Babylon in 612 BC under Nabopolassar
Book is dated between 663-612BC according to two events in the book:
Minor Prophet Micah Lesson notes
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Name means "Who is like Yahweh?"
Occasion for writing is similar to Amos and Hosea: social injustices, oppressive wealthy rulers and idolatrous worship
1:1 Jotham 750-735 BC, Ahaz 735-715 BC, Hezekiah 715-686 BC
Divided into 3 cycles around the word "hear" or " listen"
A. Cycle one 1:2-2:13
B. Cycle two 3:1-5:15
C. Cycle three 6-7:20
Cycle One 1-2:13
A. Picture of divine judgment
B. v15 He who is the glory of Israel - 1 Sam. 15:29
C. Oppressive wealthy rulers and false prophets- see 2 Tim. 4:3-4
D. 2:12-13 God has not forgotten His people
Cycle two 3-5:15
A. God's people are to live in a way that is consistent with the covenant
B. Ch 3- Wealthy tearing the people apart and in response God will not hear their prayers- see Isa. 59:1-2
C. False prophets and true prophet v8
D. Ch 4- Compare with Isaiah 2- Lord as universal King, militaries obsolete, peace and prosperity
E. Ch 5- siege is part of covenant cures- Deut. 28:45-52
F. 6 "I will's"
Cycle three 6-7:20
A. 6:6 God does not want religious formalism
B. 7:14-20- Opening words in 1:1 are judgement, closing words are merciful and bring hope